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重建世界主义的精神根基:福斯特的《霍华兹庄园》(4)

http://www.newdu.com 2018-01-12 《外国文学评论》 张楠 参加讨论

    注释:
    ①See Randall Stevenson,"Forster and Modernism",in David Bradshaw,ed.,The Cambridge Companion to E.M.Forster,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2007,pp.209-222.
    ②Michael Levenson,Modernism and the Fate of Individuality:Character and Novelistic Form from Conrad to Woolf,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1991,pp.78-79.
    ③David Medalie,E.M.Forster's Modernism,Basingstoke:Palgrave,2002,p.1.
    ④See Douglas Mao and Rebecca L.Walkowitz,"The New Modernist Studies",in PMLA,123.3(2008),pp.737-748.这一研究范式的代表性著述还包括:Susan Friedman,Planetary Modernisms:Provocations on Modernity across Time,New York:Columbia University Press,2015; Mark Wollaeger and Matt Eatough,eds.,The Oxford Handbook of Global Modernisms,Oxford:Oxford University Press,2012; Rebecca L.Walkowitz,Cosmopolitan Style:Modernism beyond the Nation,New York:Columbia University Press,2006; Melba Cuddy-Keane,"Modernism,Geopolitics,Globalization",in Modernism/modernity,10(2003),pp.539-558; Jessica Berman,Modernist Fiction,Cosmopolitanism,and the Politics of Community,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2001。
    ⑤关于世界主义理论的代表著述包括:Martha C.Nussbaum et al.,For Love of Country?:In a New Democracy Forum on the Limits of Patriotism,ed.Joshua Cohen,Boston:Beacon,1996; Pheng Cheah and Bruce Robbins,eds.,Cosmopolitics:Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation,Minneapolis:University of Minnesota Press,1998; Jacques Derrida,On Cosmopolitanism and Forgiveness,London:Routledge,2001:Kwame Anthony Appiah,Cosmopolitanism:Ethics in a World of Strangers,New York:W.W.Norton & Company,2006; Seyla Benhabib et al.,Another Cosmopolitanism,Oxford:Oxford University Press,2006。蒂姆·布兰农则从马克思主义理论视角批评了世界主义所掩盖的全球资本主义意识形态(see Tim Brennan,At Home in the World:Cosmopolitanism Now,Cambridge:Harvard University Press,1977)。
    ⑥See Lionel Trilling,E.M.Forster,Oxford:New Directions,1982,p.88; see also Paul Peppis,"Forster and England",in David Bradshaw,ed.,The Cambridge Companion to E.M.Forster,pp.47-61.
    ⑦小说中人物的社会阶层差异有其时代的特殊性,按照特里林的分析,小说的主人公们同属于英国中产阶级(当然,这里的中产阶级是一个弹性相当大的概念):根据收入状况,身为小职员的列奥纳德·巴斯特处于最下层,富有商人亨利·威尔考克斯位于最上层,有稳定收入来源的施莱格尔姐妹居于二者之间(see Lionel Triling,E.M.Forster,p.88)。
    ⑧托马斯·斯勒雷特详细描述了启蒙时期的世界主义思想(see Thomas.J.Schlereth,The Cosmopolitan Ideal in the Enlightenment Thought:Its Form and Function in the Ideas of Franklin,Hume,and Voltaire,1694-1790,Notre Dame:University of Notre Dame Press,1977),德里克·希特则对世界主义思想脉络中世界政府构想的发展演变进行了系统阐述(see Derek Heater,World Citizenship and Government:Cosmopolitan Ideas in the History of Western Political Thought,New York:St.Martin's,1996)。
    ⑨艾伦·伍德曾全面分析过康德的政治思想和世界主义理念在当下的影响(see Allen Wood,"Kant's Project for Perpetual Peace",in Pheng Cheah and Bruce Robbins,eds.,Cosmopolitics:Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation,pp.59-76)。
    ⑩See Mary Ellis Gibson,"Illegitimate Order:Cosmopolitanism and Liberalism in Forster's Howards End",in English Literature in Transition,1880-1920,28(1985),pp.106-123.
    (11)E.M.Forster,Howards End,ed.Douglas Mao,New York:Longman,2010,p.209.后文出自同一著作的引文,将随文标出该著名称首词和引文出处页码,不再另注。
    (12)See George Eliot,Felix Holt:The Radical,London:Penguin Books,1995,pp.108-109.
    (13)小说标题“Howards End”中的双关语可谓意味深长,除了表示空间意义上的霍华兹庄园,“end”还可暗含“终结”和“目的”之意。
    (14)See David Bradshaw,"Howards End",in David Bradshaw,ed.,The Cambridge Companion to E.M.Forster,p.172,n.21.特里林关于阿诺德和福斯特的专著也阐明了两者的思想渊源(see Lionel Trilling,Matthew Arnold,New York:Meridian Books,1955; see also Lionel Trilling,E.M.Forster)。
    (15)See Matthew Arnold,Culture and Anarchy:An Essay in Political and Social Criticism,in Stefan Collini,ed.,Arnold:Culture and Anarchy and Other Writings,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1993,p.83.后文出自同一著作的引文,将随文标出该著名称首词和引文出处页码,不再另注。
    (16)Matthew Arnold,"The Function of Criticism at the Present Time",in Stefan Collini,ed.,Arnold:Culture and Anarchy and Other Writings,p.50.阿诺德对英国社会现状的关切和批判,始终是他反思现代性中弥漫的物质和机械崇拜的有机组成,他对现代生活中人的总体境况的深入探讨以及对人性自我完善的需要与可能的孜孜追求,则体现出了他思想中更为宽广的世界主义视野。关于阿诺德的世界主义理念、方法和智识性情的深入剖析,详见Amanda Anderson,The Power of Distance:Cosmopolitanism and the Cultivation of Detachment,Princeton:Princeton University Press,2001,pp.91-118。
    (17)Barbara Rosecrance,Forster's Narrative Vision,Ithaca:Cornell University Press,1982,p.118.
    (18)See Douglas Mao,"Afterword",in E.M.Forster,Howards End,p.281.
    (19)See Wilfred Stone,The Cave and the Mountain:A Study of E.M.Forster,Stanford:Stanford University Press,1966,p.275.
    (20)海伦的原话是:“It'll be such a crop of hay as never.”西蒙·迪尔灵指出了其中“as never”在时态上的模棱两可(see Simon During,Against Democracy:Literary Experience in the Era of Emancipations,New York:Fordham University Press,2012,p.120)。
    (21)David J.Delaura,Hebrew and Hellene in Victorian England:Newman,Arnold,and Pater,Austin:University of Texas Press,1969,p.77.
    (22)Amanda Anderson,The Power of Distance:Cosmopolitanism and the Cultivation of Detachment,pp.117-118.
    (23)New Liberalism(新自由主义)有别于二十世纪七十年代以后盛行的以维护自由竞争的资本主义制度为宗旨的Neoliberalism(也译作新自由主义)。
    (24)See E.M.Forster,Two Cheers for Democracy,New York:Harcourt,1951,p.56.
    (25)L.T.Hobhouse,Liberalism and Other Writings,ed.James Meadowcroft,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1994,p.22.后文出自同一著作的引文,将随文标出该著名称首词和引文出处页码,不再另注。
    (26)See Michael Levenson,Modernism and the Fate of Individuality:Character and Novelistic Form from Conrad to Woolf,pp.87-88; see also Paul Peppis,"Forster and England",p.48.
    (27)See E.M.Forster,Two Cheers for Democracy,p.57.
    (28)See Stefan Collini,Public Moralists:Political Thought and Intellectual Life in Britain 1850-1930,Oxford:Oxford University Press,1991,pp.101-103; see also Edward Alexander,Matthew Arnold and John Stuart Mill,New York:Columbia University Press,1965.
    (29)John Stuart Mill,The Spirit of the Age,On Liberty,The Subjection of Women,ed.Alan Ryan,New York:W.W.Norton & Company,1997,p.87.
    (30)See Daniel Born,"Private Gardens,Public Swamps:Howards End and the Revaluation of Liberal Guilt",in Novel:A Forum on Fiction,25(1992),pp.141-159,p.156.
    (31)包括奎迈·安东尼·阿皮亚在内的当代学者已提出“有根世界主义”这一重要概念,探讨人文理想与对具体地域和文化的特殊情感之间的耦合关系(see Kwame Anthony Appiah,Cosmopolitanism:Ethics in a World of Strangers)。 (责任编辑:admin)
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